Teenagers (Photo by Tim Mossholder on Unsplash)

MAINZ, Germany — Maybe romance really is just for adults after all. A new study suggests that teenagers today are not only more likely to be single, but also happier about it compared to previous generations. It’s an interesting shift in attitudes towards romantic relationships among young people considering rising levels of loneliness across the world today.

The research, conducted by a team of psychologists in Germany and published in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, examines how satisfaction with being single has changed over time for different age groups. Their most striking finding was that adolescents born between 2001 and 2003 reported significantly higher satisfaction with singlehood compared to those born just a decade earlier.

This trend appears to be unique to teenagers, as the study found no similar increases in singlehood satisfaction among adults in their 20s and 30s. The results suggest that broader societal changes in how relationships and individual autonomy are viewed may be having a particularly strong impact on the youngest generation.

“Adolescents nowadays may be postponing entering relationships, prioritizing personal autonomy and individual fulfillment over romantic involvement, and embracing singlehood more openly,” the researchers speculate. However, they caution that more investigation is needed to understand the exact reasons behind this shift.

Beyond the generational differences, the study also uncovered several factors that were associated with higher satisfaction among singles across age groups. Younger singles tended to be more content than older ones, and those with lower levels of the personality trait neuroticism also reported greater satisfaction with singlehood.

Interestingly, the research found that singles’ satisfaction tends to decline over time, both with being single specifically and with life in general. This suggests that while attitudes may be changing, there are still challenges associated with long-term singlehood for many people.

“It seems that today’s adolescents are less inclined to pursue a romantic relationship. This could well be the reason for the increased singlehood satisfaction,” said psychologist and lead author Dr. Tita Gonzalez Avilés, of the Institute of Psychology at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, in a statement.

Paper Summary


The study utilized data from a large, nationally representative longitudinal survey in Germany called the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam). This ongoing project has been collecting annual data on romantic relationships and family dynamics since 2008.

The researchers employed a cohort-sequential design, allowing them to compare different birth cohorts at similar ages. They focused on four birth cohorts (1971-1973, 1981-1983, 1991-1993, and 2001-2003) and three age groups: adolescents (14-20 years), emerging adults (24-30 years), and established adults (34-40 years).

For their main analyses, the team included 2,936 participants who remained single throughout the study period. These individuals provided annual data on their satisfaction with singlehood and overall life satisfaction over three consecutive years.

The researchers used sophisticated statistical techniques, including multilevel growth-curve models, to examine how satisfaction changed over time and how it differed between cohorts, age groups, and based on individual characteristics like gender and personality traits.

Results Breakdown

The study’s findings can be broken down into several key areas:

  1. Prevalence of singles: Adolescents born in 2001-2003 were about 3% more likely to be single compared to those born in 1991-1993. This difference was not observed for older age groups.
  2. Satisfaction with singlehood: Later-born adolescents (2001-2003) reported significantly higher satisfaction with being single compared to earlier-born adolescents (1991-1993). This difference was not found among emerging or established adults.
  3. Life satisfaction: There were no significant cohort differences in overall life satisfaction for singles.
  4. Age effects: Across cohorts, adolescent singles reported higher satisfaction (both with singlehood and life in general) compared to adult singles.
  5. Gender differences: Contrary to expectations, single women in established adulthood (34-40 years) reported higher satisfaction with singlehood than single men in the same age group.
  6. Personality effects: Higher levels of neuroticism were associated with lower satisfaction among singles, while the effects of extraversion were less consistent.
  7. Changes over time: On average, satisfaction with singlehood tended to decline over the two-year study period for all age groups.


The researchers acknowledge several limitations to their study:

  1. Time frame: The study compared cohorts separated by only 10 years. Longer time periods might reveal more pronounced effects of historical changes.
  2. Period vs. cohort effects: It’s challenging to completely separate the effects of being born in a certain time period from the effects of experiencing certain events (like the COVID-19 pandemic) at a particular age.
  3. Age range: The study focused on individuals up to age 40, so the findings may not generalize to older singles.
  4. Cultural context: The research was conducted in Germany, and the results might differ in countries with more traditional views on marriage and family.
  5. Limited factors: While the study examined several individual characteristics, there are many other factors that could influence singles’ satisfaction that were not included in this analysis.

Discussion and Takeaways

The study’s findings offer several important insights and raise intriguing questions for future research:

Changing norms: The higher prevalence and satisfaction with singlehood among recent cohorts of adolescents suggests that societal norms around romantic relationships may be shifting. This could have implications for future patterns of partnership, marriage, and family formation.

Age-specific effects: The fact that historical changes were only observed among adolescents, not adults, indicates that this age group may be particularly responsive to shifting social norms. This aligns with developmental theories suggesting adolescence is a key period for identity formation and susceptibility to societal influences.

Individual differences matter: While cohort effects were observed, individual factors like age and personality traits emerged as stronger predictors of singles’ satisfaction. This highlights the importance of considering both societal and personal factors in understanding relationship experiences.

Declining satisfaction over time: Researchers say the general trend of decreasing satisfaction with singlehood over time suggests that there may still be challenges associated with long-term singlehood, even as social acceptance increases.

Gender dynamics: The finding that older single women reported higher satisfaction than older single men contradicts some previous assumptions and warrants further investigation into changing gender roles and expectations.

Neuroticism’s impact: The consistent negative relationship between neuroticism and satisfaction among singles points to the importance of emotional stability and coping skills in navigating singlehood.

Adolescent well-being: The higher overall satisfaction reported by adolescent singles compared to adult singles raises questions about the pressures and expectations that may emerge in adulthood regarding romantic relationships.

The researchers emphasize that their findings don’t necessarily mean that being single is better or worse than being in a relationship. Rather, the study sheds light on how experiences of singlehood are changing and what factors contribute to satisfaction among singles.

As society continues to evolve, understanding these trends could be crucial for supporting individual well-being, shaping social policies, and preparing for potential shifts in family structures and demographics. The study’s authors call for more research to explore the mechanisms behind these changes and to investigate how they might play out in different cultural contexts and over longer periods of time.

“We assume that adolescents nowadays may postpone entering into a stable relationship because they value their personal autonomy and individual fulfillment over a romantic partnership,” says Gonzalez Avilés. “However, these explanations are – for the time being – speculative and require further investigation.”

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