Picture of President Kennedy in the limousine in Dallas, Texas, on Main Street, minutes before the assassination. Also in the presidential limousine are Jackie Kennedy, Texas Governor John Connally, and his wife, Nellie. (Public domain photo)

ROCKVILLE, Md. — Science may have finally put an end to the decades-old debate as to whether or not the bullets that killed President John F. Kennedy actually came second gunman positioned on the “grassy knoll” at Dallas’ Dealey Plaza back in November 1963. A new study shows that, based on the forward motion in which Kennedy’s head snapped after being struck and crime scene forensics, there’s no question that Lee Harvey Oswald was the shooter.

Dr. Nicholas Nalli, a senior research scientist at IMSG Inc. and the lead author of the research, says his findings prove Kennedy couldn’t have been hit with bullets shot from the grassy knoll. His calculations instead show that the fatal gunfire must have come from Oswald’s Carcano military rifle and from the same direction as the Texas School Book Depository, which was located behind the motorcade.

John F. Kennedy motorcade minutes before assassination
Picture of President Kennedy in the limousine in Dallas, Texas, on Main Street, minutes before the assassination. Also in the presidential limousine are Jackie Kennedy, Texas Governor John Connally, and his wife, Nellie. (Public domain photo)

But conspiracy theorists have long pushed the notion that JFK was actually shot by someone else, a second gunman situated on the grassy knoll in front of the president’s motorcade. The famous 26-second-long Zapruder film, shot by Dallas spectator Abraham Zapruder with his home movie camera, shows one of the clearest views of the assassination and only fueled these theories after it was made public. Many believe the film proves JFK couldn’t have been shot from the depository, but Nalli argues the opposite.

“I found that the Zapruder film shows President Kennedy being shot from behind and not from the infamous grassy knoll, in corroboration of the official autopsy findings – that’s the only ‘smoking gun’ in the film,” says Dr. Nalli in a media release. “The historical fact of the matter is that the U.S. federal government investigations were comprised of upstanding civil servants of high ethical standards who, in spite of difficult circumstances, by-and-large got the basics of the case correct.”

Nalli came to his conclusions after studying the motion of Kennedy’s head in the film, which moves back and to the left from a recoil effect upon being struck by gunfire. But he says observers fail to recognize the forward head snap at the moment of impact, which only supports the theory that the bullets came from behind the motorcade.

“Rather than gloss over this fact, as has been done by most previous authors, including anti-conspiracy authors, I chose to study and model it explicitly,” says Dr. Nalli.

Nalli and his research team developed a model to explain the forward snap motion of JFK’s head before it moved back and to the left. Using forensics taken from the crime scene, including bullet mass, speed, diameter, along with camera shutter frequency from the film and measurements from the autopsy report, Nalli was able to put together a one-dimensional gunshot wound dynamics model.

The calculations from the model, Nalli says, quantitatively show that the motions of JFK’s head upon being shot are physically consistent with a gunshot wound that would have been caused by a Carcano military rifle fired from the depository building. While that doesn’t necessarily rule out a conspiracy in the assassination, Nalli does conclude that the shots could not have been fired from the grassy knoll. The Zapruder film, he says, only supports the conclusions that Oswald was the shooter.

“Given the current trendiness of news that are not based on facts, the study shows that thorough scientific investigation can make a difference in supporting one theory over another, and I therefore believe that the topic is as relevant today as it was nearly 55 years ago.” he says.

The full analysis completed by Nalli and his research team were published April 24, 2018 in the journal Heliyon.

Our Editorial Process

StudyFinds publishes digestible, agenda-free, transparent research summaries that are intended to inform the reader as well as stir civil, educated debate. We do not agree nor disagree with any of the studies we post, rather, we encourage our readers to debate the veracity of the findings themselves. All articles published on StudyFinds are vetted by our editors prior to publication and include links back to the source or corresponding journal article, if possible.

Our Editorial Team

Steve Fink


Chris Melore


Sophia Naughton

Associate Editor


  1. Colonel Robert F. Cunningham says:

    PUPPYDOO! … E’nuff said …

  2. leatherneckga says:

    3 things about that day. 1. Oswald would have been hard pressed with a highly accurate weapon he trained with, to do the shooting they claim he did that day. 2. The Mannlicher Carcano, a 6.5 mm round, is notoriously inaccurate. 3. 90 seconds (1.5 minutes) after the shooting that allegedly took place on the 6th floor of the dallas school book depository, he was seen, by a police officer, drinking a coke in the second floor break room. That means he had to run to the far side of the 6th floor warehouse room, wipe off all finger prints, hide the rifle, then run down 4 flights of stairs, run up to the coke machine, buy the coke and start drinking it. All of that in 90 seconds. I defy anyone to do likewise. This dog don’t hunt.

  3. James Alan Groome says:

    The reports unclassified last year show that there was a bullet hole through the front windshield… from the exterior to the interior.
    Also Hoover stated in a report that his only concern was the public believe that Oswald is the lone shooter.

    These are pretty damning… official government paperwork not comments from people.

  4. Marti McCorkendale says:

    Considering that there is evidence the autopsy reports were doctored and that Oswald was at best an average shooter, this is just more whitewash.

  5. Platopus says:

    With the FBI and Dallas police controlling all the evidence, we can’t make valid judgments of what really happened. Someone made fake autopsy photos (the ones that show an entry wound in the back of JFK’s head are FAKE meaning, it is NOT JFKs head) all the eyewitnesses to his wounds place the largest exit wound located in the back of his head. Problem is we don’t get to see ALL the evidence or autopsy photos! So of course we can be easily manipulated and made fun of. JFK was killed as a conspiracy and the cover-up was just as bad as the purps seem to get away with it. Was Viet Nam a huge ploy to keep the public busy dealing with war rather then avenge the true killers of President Kennedy?

  6. Ingvanye says:

    What a load of rubbish.

  7. Mark says:

    It’s very likely Oswald was not the shooter. However I’ve seen two videos, one of the driver of the car turning around to shoot Kennedy, and another video of his wife in the back seat shooting him. And this was long before deep fakes came on the scene. So, this appears to be a multi layered complicated coverup.