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MINNEAPOLIS — A new study is sounding the alarm for patients taking dozens of common prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Researchers find that taking a particular class of drug, anticholinergics, increases the risk of developing mild thinking and memory problems.

The study shows there are about 100 of these types of drugs in widespread use. These medications treat everything from colds to high blood pressure to depression.

The research, published in the journal Neurology, finds that people with genetic risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease are particularly susceptible to these issues. Overall, scientists reveal patients with no cognitive issues are 47 percent more likely to develop a mental impairment if they’re taking at least one anticholinergic drug.

“Our findings suggest that reducing the use of anticholinergic drugs before people develop any cognitive problems may be an important way to prevent the negative consequences of these drugs on thinking skills, especially for people who have an elevated risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease,” study author Lisa Delano-Wood from the University of California, San Diego says in a press release.

How common are anticholinergics?

Researchers say these drugs have a wide range of uses, treating both common health issues and serious diseases. Patients take them for conditions like motion sickness, urinary incontinence, and overactive bladders. Anticholinergics are also prescribed to manage Parkinson’s disease and high blood pressure.

Metoprolol, atenolol, loratadine, and bupropion are among the most common medications in the anticholinergic drug class.

The study examined 688 people with an average age of 74. Researchers report none of the participants had any trouble with thinking or memory at the start of the decade-long review.

Study authors also find that people on anticholinergics are usually taking several of these drugs at once. Overall, one-third of the participants were found to be taking some sort of anticholinergic medication and the average patient was using four to five anticholinergic drugs.

Concerning links to Alzheimer’s disease

The report looks at cognitive tests taken by the group once a year throughout the 10 years. Out of the 230 taking anticholinergic drugs, 117 (51 percent) went on to develop mild cognitive impairments. Among those participants not taking these drugs, only 42 percent would eventually have these problems.

After adjusting for depression, the number of medications taken, and each patient’s history of cardiac problems, study authors arrived at their 47-percent risk determination. They add that higher exposure to anticholinergics increase this risk factor.

When studying human biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease, an even greater chance of having cognitive problems emerges. Researchers say people with risk factors for Alzheimer’s in their cerebrospinal fluid are four times more likely to be affected by anticholinergic drugs.

Those with other genetic risk factors for Alzheimer’s are 2.5 times more likely to develop mild cognitive impairments.

Dosing may be tied to memory problems

Delano-Wood and her team also say the majority of patients are likely taking much higher doses than may be needed for older adults. In fact, the report shows 57 percent take twice the minimum recommended dosage and 18 percent take four times that amount.

“This is of course concerning and is a potential area for improvement that could possibly lead to a reduction in cases of mild cognitive impairment,” says Delano-Wood.

The study notes that the results are limited by the patient sample size and the fact that only a third are taking anticholinergic drugs. Researchers say other studies find the number of older adults taking anticholinergics is actually near 70 percent.

While the results point to possible issues with these medications, study authors recommend patients speak with their doctor or pharmacist before suddenly stopping use of their prescriptions.

About Chris Melore

Chris Melore has been a writer, researcher, editor, and producer in the New York-area since 2006. He won a local Emmy award for his work in sports television in 2011.

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StudyFinds publishes digestible, agenda-free, transparent research summaries that are intended to inform the reader as well as stir civil, educated debate. We do not agree nor disagree with any of the studies we post, rather, we encourage our readers to debate the veracity of the findings themselves. All articles published on StudyFinds are vetted by our editors prior to publication and include links back to the source or corresponding journal article, if possible.

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  1. Mike says:

    What a STUPID click bait article….why don’t you LIST the medications you say are bad.

  2. Rick says:

    5 drugs were mentioned by name. What are the other 95?

  3. A pratt says:

    atenolol and metoprolol are not anticholinergics they are beta blockers. Facts like this diminish any credibility of the article

  4. BarryPonzio says:

    Get your medications from NECC.
    I promise they are safe and wont kill you.

  5. Someone says:

    So, where is the list?

    Great reporting there…

  6. Gary says:

    Learning to trust the “*Not approved by the FDA” warnings on vitamins more and more.

  7. Jeanne says:

    Why don’t you give us a list of these meds ?

  8. William Maliha MD says:

    Metoprolol, atenolol; are not anticholinergics, they are beta blockers. Totally different.

  9. Tammy gist says:

    I am only 44 and already am having these issues. I take metprolol for my heart, loretidine for allergies. My memory is terrible. My pronunciations are bad. I look at every day things and cant think of the words.

  10. Emil Skobeloff says:

    Would you explain how a beta blocker is anticholinergic?

  11. Peter J says:

    This is irresponsible reporting aimed at creating mass concern by waving a red flag without providing the reader with the whole story. Responsible journalism would have either listed the 100 drugs or provided a reference to where the reader could find the list. In this way the reaader would be able to consult with their doctor about the study and the drugs they were taking if they were on the list.

  12. Bryan says:

    So Chris Melore…. LIST the drugs!!!!! The article is useless to people without doing so.

  13. Dennis says:

    It would have been helpful, if the list of medications was made available. This article is written with no information to help the public.

  14. Diana says:

    Is the trycyclic called clomipramine also an anti cholinergenic?

  15. Jtowers says:

    Beta blockers are not anticholinergics. Anticholinergics are the antidote for beta blocker overdose. Either this study or this article had some serious flaws

  16. Tony says:

    Metoprolol and Atenolol are NOT anticholinergic medications.

  17. Hamu Joseph Mlyuka says:

    Thanks for the report on association between anticholinergics and thinking problem, memory loss plus alzheimer’s.
    But, am the grouping of anticholinergic medications has some ambiguity which may requires author(s) to provide clarification. In the example of anticholinergics you have included Metoprolol and Atenolol which are antagonist of adrenaline or noradrenaline a completely different neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. So if possible kindly rephrase or provide the logic behind

  18. Robert Payne says:

    Please send me your materials regarding how we can cure or reduce Alzheimers.

  19. Leigh-Anne Salvadori says:

    The difference between taking anticholinergic drugs-51% that can develope mild cognitive impairment & 42% not taking these medications, that went on to develop problems, isn’t that big of a difference, really… I do take several of them, and have for quite a while, and am concerned, especially with my grandfather, dying of Alzheimer’s… But I don’t think the numbers are that worrisome, from the medical standpoint/testing, and info that we have so far…